The causeway across Lake Pontchartrain near New Orleans, Louisiana.
Buffet food. Man taking a sandwich from a platter at a buffet table.
EDITORIAL USE ONLY.
Neural network. Computer artwork of a brain, with the brain's neural network represented by orange and blue strands in the background. A neural network is made up of nerve cells (neurons). Neurons are responsible for passing information around the central nervous system (CNS), and from the CNS to the rest of the body, as electrical impulses.
Leaf cutter ant, Atta cephalotes, cutting a section of leaf to take back to its nest. The leaf will be chewed up by the ant's fellow workers and added to the fungus garden on which the ants feed.
Astronaut Bruce McCandless II, one of two 41-B mission specialists, 'spacewalking' a few metres from the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Challenger. The shuttle's cabin and open payload bay may be seen in the reflection from his gold-tinted visor. This historic extravehicular activity was the first to make use of a nitrogen-propelled hand- controlled device called the manned manoeuvring unit (MMU). The unit allows for much greater mobility than that afforded to previous spacewalkers who had to use restrictive tethers.
Peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus) crawling on the seabed. Despite its name this is neither a mantis or a shrimp, instead being a crustacean only distantly related to the true shrimps. It is an active predator, and uses its club-like front limbs to kill prey. It mainly feeds on crabs and molluscs, breaking open their shells with blows from these clubs. A mantis shrimp strike is one of the fastest animal movements in the world, with a force similar to that of a low-calibre bullet. The eyes of the mantis shrimp are the most complex in the world, containing as many as 16 different types of photoreceptor (compared to four in humans). Photographed in Tulamben, Bali, Indonesia.
Simulated heart attack.
Wings of emperor moth (Pavonia pavonia), close-up. The large eye markings on the wings of the moth act as a deterrent to predators. The male has a wingspan of about 6 centimetres and the female, 8 centimetres. This species is native British and generally found on heaths, moors and at woodland edges.
Jumping spider (Phidippus sp.), central Pennsylvania.
Red deer fighting.
Appetising collection of food rich in carbohydrates (pasta and pizza), fats (olive oil and battered meat and fish) and proteins (meat and fish). Carbohydrates are found in two food groups, sugars and starches, and are the main energy source for all the metabolic processes in the human body. Protein is needed for growth and cell repair whereas fats, in unbalanced diets, may lead to vascular and heart diseases.
Christmas dinner. Roast turkey with chipolatas wrapped in bacon, stuffing, roast potatoes and mixed vegetables.
EDITORIAL USE ONLY.
Chromosome. Computer artwork of a chromosome and a DNA autoradiogram. Chromosomes contain the genetic material DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).
Overflowing litter bin on a pavement.
Primate skulls. Coloured x-rays of the skulls of a gorilla (Gorilla gorilla, left), chimpanzee (Pan trogoldytes, centre) and human (Homo sapien, left). The gorilla skull is recoginsable by its pronounced brows and small cranial capacity. The chimpanzee's cranium is larger but considerably smaller than that of the human. This image could represent evolution.
Edward Mills Purcell. Portrait of the US physicist Edward Mills Purcell (1912-1997). Purcell received his doctorate in physics from
Illustration of a model for the potassium and sodium ion channels through pores in the plasma membrane of an animal nerve cell: an example of active transport, where solutes (ions, sugars, amino acids) are pumped into cells from a region of lower to higher concentration. This is a reverse of free diffusion, where molecules move from higher to lower concentrations, that is, down the concentration gradient. The sodium/potassium exchange pump is described here: sodium ions (Na+, red spheres) are being actively pumped out of the cell in a compulsory exchange for potassium ions (K+, blue spheres) entering the cell.
A biltmore stick is one of the tools being used to determine the quantity and marketability of the lumber in this private woodland in Taylor County Wisconsin.
Biological computing. Conceptual computer artwork of a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecule with binary code, representing biological computing, or biocomputing. Biocomputing aims to create cellular organisms that are genetically programmed to perform tasks, including adding numbers, storing results, and running clocks. In the future, a colony of cells may be programmed to detect a change in its environment and to act accordingly. For example, it could detect a toxin in the blood of a human host and automatically produce and release the antidote. The cells could also be combined with computer chips and used externally as sensors. DNA encodes genetic information.
Abacus and fountain pen on a open accounts book. The abacus is an early form of arithmetic calculator.
Wren (Troglodytes troglodytes) calling. Photographed in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, UK, in June.
Millennium bug. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a booklouse on a computer chip, representing the millennium bug. The millennium bug theory was concerned with some computers being unable to understand the change of digits from "99" to "00" at the turn of the century to the year 2000. This was due to the fact that computers only use the last two digits of each year on their internal
A geodesic radar dome at Lowther Hill Civil Aviation Authority Radar Station, Scotland. Such radar stations are used by airliners flying at high altitudes, and provide information about air space over a very wide area. The dome itself is made of fibre-glass which, unlike concrete, is transparent to radiowaves.
Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii).
MODEL RELEASED. PUVA therapy. Man undergoing psoralen-ultraviolet A (PUVA) therapy on his hands and feet. PUVA therapy is used to treat skin disorders such as psoriasis or eczema. The patient is given a drug, psoralen (8- Methoxysporalen), two hours before exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light in special cabinets. The drug reacts with UV light in the skin, resulting in an improvement of the skin condition. Between 85 and 90 percent of people with psoriasis are completely clear of the condition after 30 treatments (10 weeks). Special glasses must be worn during the treatment to prevent UV damage to the eyes.
Rene Laennec. Portrait of Rene Theophile Hyacinthe Laennec (1781-1826), using the stethoscope that he invented.
Military technology. At left is a stealth variant of the Giat Industries AMX 30 tank. At right is a drone, a robotic vehicle which can undertake surveillance or reconaissance. The soldier is wearing a prototype of the French FELIN infantry system, which provides integrated targetting, sensor and communications equipment and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) protection. FELIN is scheduled to be deployed in 2006.
Illustration of the Vortex Theory from Principiae Philosophiae 1644, part 3 Of the Visible World, by Rene Descartes. Descartes was a French philosopher and mathematician, born in 1596 and died in 1650. The illustraton depicts the division of space into regions containing particles rotating about centres. The centres are here labelled F, D, S etc.
DNA circuit board. Computer artwork of a molecule of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) integrated into a printed circuit board. Such systems could be used to prevent fraud, or to store samples of DNA for identification or crime fighting.
Francis Crick (1916-2004), British molecular biologist and co- discoverer of the structure of DNA. Crick's education was in physics, but after World War 2 he moved to Cambridge and took up molecular biology. Crick met James Watson in 1951, the two agreeing to study the structure of DNA as the basis of the genetic code. Basing their theories on existing work, as well as the crystallography of Wilkins & Franklin, the two announced their 'double helix' structure in 1953. Crick, Watson and Wilkins shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. Crick's later work revolved around the way DNA codes for proteins. Photographed in 1993. COMMERCIAL USE REQUIRES CLEARANCE.
Sexual identity crisis. Conceptual computer artwork of a combined male and female symbol on the abdomen of a naked woman.
Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) snarling in the Bandhavgarh National Park, India. The Bengal tiger is found in India and other parts of the Indian subcontinent. It is an endangered species with estimated numbers of between 2,000 and 4,000 individuals. The rising human population in India has led to increasing encounters with wild tigers.
Running skeleton inside an outline of the body, computer artwork.
Mantis. Close-up of an unidentified mantis (family Mantidae). Mantises are voracious carnivores, using their large compound eyes to locate insects and other small animals. The forelegs are then used to capture the prey. They are found in tropical and warm, temperate regions of the world.
Laboratory microchip. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the surface of a microfluidic microchip, a type of microelectromechanical system (MEMS). This is used in laboratory analysis, and is commonly called a 'lab on a chip'. Samples and analytical chemicals mix in the chambers and flow through the microchannels. The small size of these channels (typically less than 1 millimetre across) allows many properties to be measured, including fluid viscosity, pH, enzyme reaction kinetics, the molecular diffusion co-efficient, number of cells, and protein properties. Manufacturerd by microTEC, Duisburg, Germany. Magnification: x67 when printed 10 centimetres wide.
Ripe rice ears (Oryza sativa) before harvest in Thailand.
Cuttlefish (order Sepiida, upper centre and lower centre) camouflaged against sea squirts (centre and bottom). Cuttlefish change colour according to their surroundings by dilating or contracting pigment cells called chromatophores. Rhythmic bands of colour are quickly pulsed along the body and arms, possibly to mesmerise and distract its prey. Cuttlefish feed on small molluscs, crabs, shrimp and fish. Photographed off Mabul, Sabah, Malaysia.
Rod of Asclepius. Artwork of a snake winding around a staff, wearing a stethoscope. The rod of Asclepius, often confused with the Caduceus (two snakes around a winged stick) is an ancient symbol that is often associated with the medical profession. Asclepius, the son of Apollo, was a practitioner of medicine in ancient Greek mythology.
Three-striped poison dart frog (Epipedobates trivittatus) with tadpoles on its back. It uses a sticky mucus to carry the tadpoles high up into the canopy, where it will deposit them into pools of collected water in epiphytic plants. This frog was found in rainforest near Iquitos, Peru.
Young Southern Elephant Seals fighting (Mirounga leonina), Falkland Islands.
Fire escape staircase.
Mexico City, Mexico, satellite image. Mexico City, located
Dragonfly wings. Transparent forewing and hindwing of a dragonfly. The lines on the wings are veins, which as well as carrying blood, give the wings strength and flexibility. A dragonfly's wings are capable of twisting in flight, giving the insect great manoeuvrability and control.
Neuromuscular junctions. Light micrograph of motor neurons (dark threads) meeting with skeletal muscle fibres (cells, pink layers). These meeting points are neuromuscular junctions, a specialised form of synapse, the junction between nerve cells. An electrical impulse arriving at a neuromuscular junction triggers the release of chemical transmitters that cross the synaptic gap and trigger contraction of the fibres that make up the muscle tissue. Magnification: x70 when printed at 10 centimetres wide.
Spider's web. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of gum drops on a strand of silk from the web of a garden orb spider (Araneus diadematus). The silk strands are coated in a viscous layer that has adhesive properties. The gum droplets are thought to slow the drying of the adhesive and to improve the stopping power of the web. Garden orb spiders build their webs between low plants, where they catch flying insects. Magnification: x143 at 6x7cm size.
Mermaids with dolphins.
Fibonacci spiral and Phi,
Protein folding simulation. Display of 156 protein folding configurations, simulated using a supercomputer. This work may help identify treatments for diseases caused by incorrectly folded proteins. The study of protein folding is known as molecular dynameomics. This simulation was produced at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), based at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, USA.
Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902), German pathologist and anthropologist. Virchow was a skilled pathologist. He was the first to recognise leukaemia
MODEL RELEASED. Making love.
Fireflies in cave. People in a boat (lower centre) viewing a cave filled with glowing fireflies. Fireflies (family Lampyridae) are nocturnal beetles that use light to attract mates. The light is produced by the oxidation of a benzthiazole derivative by an enzyme called luciferase. The reaction is extremely efficient, producing no heat radiation. The firefly regulates the flashes by controlling the amount of air admitted to the light-producing organ on its abdomen. Photographed in New Zealand.
Atomic force micrograph at atomic-scale resolution of a thin co-polymer coating on a silicon substrate. The co-polymer coating has been applied chemically. The topographical information obtained by the microscope has been processed to produce a contour map of the sample. An understanding of the bonding mechanism between polymers and silicon is of importance in the microelectronics industry. Longitudinal magnification is about x500 at 35mm size, the vertical scale has been exaggerated by a further 25x.
Wireless internet antenna. This antenna allows personal computers to connect to the internet wirelessly.
Alarm clock. Coloured X-ray of an alarm clock. The coiled springs and cogs of the internal mechanism are seen. The hammer (upper centre) is designed to vibrate between, and hit, the two alarm bells.
Gray Mullet (Mugil cephalus) aka Black or Striped Mullet. New Hebrides.
Ecological food web, computer artwork. This model represents the ecosystem of the El Verde rainforest, Puerto Rico. Animal and plant life is represented by the coloured nodes. Red nodes are lowest trophic level organisms such as plants and detritus, orange represents intermediate species and yellow represents top level species and primary predators. Relationships between organisms are shown by the connecting lines. Thick lines connect to predator species and thin lines connect to prey. Food webs are used by biologists to study species interaction and predict ecological outcomes. Model created by Neo Martinez, Pacific Ecoinformatics and Computational Ecology Lab, USA.
Cross-section of a coronary artery showing plaque build-up, narrowing and clot, resulting in a myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Easter Island statues. Half-buried moai statues on Easter Island (Rapa Nui) in the South Pacific. These megalithic statues were carved from volcanic rock by the islanders from 400-1500 AD. Around 1000 statues were carved, with about 100 of these re-erected by archaeologists. As here, many remain on the slopes of the volcano where they were carved out of the rock. They are now buried in the soil formed by centuries of erosion. The statues range between 3 and 12 metres in height and weigh up to 85 tonnes. Carving and erection ceased as deforestation led to the total collapse of the island's culture and ecosystem.
Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Vava'u, Kingdom of Tonga. Tonga is a major breeding and calving location for the species in the South Pacific.
Male fiddler crab (Uca sp.). This crab is named for the large claw of the male; the movement of the male's smaller claw to its mouth when it is feeding resembles a fiddler moving his bow across his instrument. The large claw is used to attract females and in ritualised courtship disputes between males. The fiddler crab is found on sandy beaches. It digs a burrow, around 30 centimetres deep, just below the high tide line. It feeds on detritus, filtering organic particles from grains of sand. Photographed on Bunaken Island, Indonesia.
Abacus and calculator.
MODEL RELEASED. Cancer chemotherapy. Female patient receiving anticancer drugs from an intravenous drip bag. This continuously supplies the patient with a controlled amount of drugs that target cancer cells. The drugs target all rapidly dividing cells, which causes them to have a range of side effects, including hair loss. Cancer is a disease caused by the uncontrolled replication of abnormal cells, which can invade and destroy healthy tissue. The drugs in use here are cytoxan and adriamycin. Photographed at Massachusetts General Hospital, USA.
Global water volume. Conceptual computer artwork of the total volume of the Earth's water, seen as a sphere, centred over Asia. It dramatically shows how finite the water supply on Earth actually is. The sphere measures 1390 kilometres across and has a volume of 1.4 billion cubic kilometres. These figures were calculated by adding the volumes of water in the oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, ground water and water in both ice caps and the atmosphere. The largest percentage (97%) of water is held in the oceans, with ice caps & glaciers accounting for a further 2%. The average depth of the ocean is 3.8 kilometres.
Albert Einstein. Cartoon of the Swiss-German physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) in front of a blackboard. Einstein is best known for his paper on the special theory of relativity, which resulted in the famous equation E=mc2. Einstein was invited to the University of Oxford, UK, in May 1931 to give a series of lectures on relativity. The blackboard from the second lecture, on which he demonstrated his theory, was preserved. It is now displayed in the University's Museum of the History of Science.
^BBouncing ball^b, stroboscopic image using coloured lights. The strobe light was set to flash 50 times every second, and the exposure time was about 1.5 seconds, so about 75 separate images were obtained on this single exposure. The sequence of images shows that the ball's trajectory is a parabola, as predicted by theory. The sequence also shows the changing speed of the ball: the ball moves fastest near the ground and slowest at the top of an arc. The sequence also shows that the horizontal speed is approximately constant, and only the vertical speed is changing (due to gravity). The height of successive bounces is less as the ball loses energy by hitting the ground.
^BMathematical equations. ^b Close-up of the nib of a fountain pen writing mathematical equations.
^BBegonia leaves^b (^IBegonia^i 'Uncle Remus'). Photographed in November.
DNA. False-colour transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the bacterium Escherichia coli surrounded by its DNA. The bacterium was treated with an enzyme to weaken its cell wall and then placed in water, causing its DNA to be ejected. The DNA is visible as the gold-coloured fibrous mass lying around the orange bacterial shell. The total length of DNA is 1.5 millimetres, 1000 times the length of the bacterium itself. E. coli is a usually harmless inhabitant of the human intestinal tract. It is an important laboratory organism and is widely used in biotechnology research. Magnification: x12,500 at 6x4.5 cm size.
Carbon cycle. Artwork illustrating the global carbon cycle. Carbon is stored in the Earth's biosphere (flora, fauna, soil and freshwater), geosphere (geological store), hydrosphere (oceans) and atmosphere. It is exchanged between these reservoirs by biological, chemical and physical processes (indicated by arrows). The global carbon budget is the balance between the carbon reservoirs.
Nanorobot, conceptual computer artwork.
^BAlexis St. Martin.^b Portrait of Alexis St. Martin (1800-82), Canadian trapper who was used by William Beaumont to conduct research into stomach digestion. On 6 June 1822, St. Martin was injured with a shotgun at close range. His life was saved by a physician, William Beaumont. The injury left St. Martin with a permanent fistula (opening) in the wall of his stomach. This allowed Beaumont to examine the stomach lining, observe digestion taking place and obtain samples of gastric juice. Beaumont took 238 observations but St. Martin eventually ran away after arguments between them.
EDITORIAL USE ONLY.^BFelix Bloch^b (1905-1983), Swiss-US physicist and Nobel laureate. Bloch was educated in Switzerland and worked in Germany and the USA. Bloch shared the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physics with Edward Mills Purcell. The share of the Nobel was awarded for Bloch's development of new methods of measuring nuclear magnetism. This led to the development of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and later to the medical technique of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Nantes. True-colour satellite image of Nantes (at right), France, and the surrounding area. North is at top. Urban areas such as Nantes and Saint Nazarre (upper left) appear in shades of grey. Forests and other thickly-vegetated areas are dark green, grazing areas are light green, & crops are mostly yellow. Bare ground appears pale yellow or brown, almost white. The estuary of the River Loire is at centre left. The colour of the Loire and the sea depends upon depth, currents and the amount of sediment in the water. Nantes is surrounded by a patchwork of agricultural fields. Image taken by the American Landsat-5 satellite. The smallest visible objects are 30 metres across.
Business people raising hands in seminar
Double Gean (Prunus avium 'Plena'). Double form of Wild cherry photographed at gates of Sizergh Castle, Cumbria, England.
Carolinian forest, Rondeau Provincial Park, Ontario.
Abstract computer artwork.
Dry clay pan, Sossusvlei, Namib-Naukluft National Park, Namibia.
MODEL RELEASED. Bird watching. Boy sitting under a tree with a pair of binoculars.
Maize varieties. Examples of native maize (Zea mays) varieties grown in Oaxaca State, Mexico. Farmers in southern Mexico are being encouraged to continue cultivating strains of local maize, rather than switching to commercial varieties. The local varieties act as genetic insurance. As pests adapt to attack the commercial strains that are most widely used, pest resistance characteristics from the local strains can be bred into the commercial strains to protect them. Without this insurance the world could face a major food shortage in the future. Maize is the world's most important crop, and is a staple for hundreds of millions in the Americas, Africa and Europe.
woman using perfume
man running with shopping trolley
Bait ball of blue jack mackerel (Trachurus picturatus). A bait ball is a defensive manoeuvre performed by schooling fish that makes it harder for the predators to pick out individuals. However, it can also draw the attention of other predators, some of which have learnt how to take advantage of the bait ball. Photographed in the Azores.
Shrimp fishing. Fisherman working on a shrimp trawler where he is dumping the non-shrimp by-catch overboard, where it is eaten by gulls and pelicans. The trawler is part of the Alabama Fisheries Cooperative. Photographed in Mobile Bay, near Mobile, Alabama, USA.
Scanning electron micrograph of a spore tower of the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. Slime moulds are a curious division of plants with many of the characteristics of animals. They consist of a slow-moving mass of amoeboid protoplasm, which engulfs particles of solid food which it encounters. It reproduces itself however by spores, shed from a spore tower, produced by a vegetative body called the plasmodium. The micrograph shows exposed spores on the underside of the spore tower. The majority of slime moulds are saprophytes, feeding on dead or decaying organic matter. Magnification: x500 at 10x8 inch, x60 at 35mm size.